Sanitary and educational work

September 10 - World Suicide Prevention Day

Every year on September 10, the World Health Organization (WHO), with the support of the International Association for Suicide Prevention, is conducting World Suicide Prevention Day. Modern rhythms of life and work, and also, apparently, many subjective factors lead to the fact that at some point a person decides to commit a crime - a crime against his life. According to statistics, on average, half of the cases of violent death in the world are suicides.

According to WHO, the frequency of suicides in the world is an average of 15 cases for every 100 thousand people a year. The number of suicides below 10 per 100 thousand population per year is considered low, 10-20 - average, more than 20 - high, more than 30 - very high. The tendencies are such that by 2020 the number of suicides is likely to increase by one and a half times. Suicide is a global and tragic problem for the whole society. In addition to the dramatic consequences for the fate of man and his loved ones, suicides bear enormous social and economic damage to society as a whole. In our country, suicides occupy the fourth place as the cause of death, second only to cardiovascular diseases, tumors and respiratory diseases, and ahead of death in road accidents and murders.

The prevalence of suicide cases is dominated by developed countries. The championship belongs to the countries of Eastern Europe. In Japan, approximately 30,000 people commit suicide annually. The lowest indicators are in Latin America and Islamic countries. In Africa, statistics are almost non-existent.

What is the reason for suicide, or why people commit suicide. The answer to this question depends on the measures that must be taken to prevent suicide. In general terms, the prerequisite for any suicide is one or other unsolved life problem that a person can not solve in another way. At the same time, the reasons for this behavior are very diverse: suicide is very rarely caused by any one factor, it usually occurs when a set of causes ripens, and the last of them plays only the role of the last drop overflowing the bowl.

The suicide rate in Belarus has declined from 34.9 to 28.3 cases per 100,000 population over the past nine years, but it remains high.

The research conducted by the psychiatric service in the region and the Vitebsk Center for Regional Research and Development have revealed the main causes and some peculiarities of suicides in the region.

1. In the Vitebsk region, the number of men exceeds their number among women more than 4 times and is more than 80-85% of the total number, the number of women is 15-20%.

2. In our region, the risk group for age is the residents of the region over 40 years of age. At this age, the number of unresolved personal and socio-economic problems is increasing, and this can increase suicidal activity.

3. The majority of suicides have a low level of education: incomplete secondary (12.2%), secondary (43.0%) and secondary special (32.2%) education. And only about 4% of suicides have higher and incomplete higher education.

4. The family situation of suicides is quite unfortunate - only 44% were married or lived in a civil marriage. The rest of the suicides lived outside marriage. Attention is drawn to the fact that 27.2% of suicides are single, that is, they have never been married. In a full family lived only 12%, in single-parent families more than 70%, and lonely lived each 4 suicides (25.6%).

5. There is a clear correlation between the levels of unemployment and suicide, but its nature is quite complex. The largest group of suicides are non-working (67.2%). Of course, this group includes non-working pensioners, but the unemployment rate among suicides is ten times higher than among the rest of the population.

6. Frequent use of alcohol. Among alcohol abusers, the level of suicide is high. For 2002-2009 in the Vitebsk region, the number of alcoholic intoxication among those who commit suicide averages 51%. In rural areas, alcoholism of suicides is more pronounced (about 65%).

According to different researchers, there is a direct correlation between the growth of suicides and the level of sales of alcohol. The number of drunken suicides increased by 41%. Also, according to a number of researchers, an intoxicating-oriented pattern of alcohol consumption prevails in the oblast. As you know, acute alcohol intoxication has a disinhibitory effect, translating suicidal thoughts into actions.

7. According to preliminary data, 40% of respondents in our region admit suicide. The society "permits" suicide when a person is physically incurably (30%) and mentally (9%) is sick, is in a mental crisis (8%) or in an intolerable state (7%). These permissive guidelines of the society show how important it is for the prevention of suicides to change the material and social situation of seriously ill and people with mental or neurotic disorders.

The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus in October 2009 developed the Comprehensive Plan for the Prevention of Suicidal Behavior for 2009-2012. Based on this plan in the Vitebsk region in November 2009. approved a comprehensive plan for the prevention of suicidal behavior in the population of the Vitebsk region for 2009-2012. This plan coordinates the actions of all state, religious and public organizations on the prevention of suicide. On the site of the Vitebsk Oblast Executive Committee, a section on the prevention of suicides has been issued.

According to preliminary data, as of July 31, 2011, 247 suicides were committed in the region, which is 6.0% higher than the level of the same period in 2010 (232 cases). Among the dispensary psychiatric contingent, 6 cases of suicides among patients were registered, among those undergoing prophylactic supervision, 12 people committed suicide, 17 among drug abusers.

According to the urban population, 125 cases of suicide occurred, which is 13.7 per 100,000 urban population, which is 9.2% higher than the level of 2010 (11 cases) and 120% of rural population, which is 37.9 per 100 thousand of population - growth to the level of 2010 by 8.6% (117 cases).

Among the suicides, 200 men (80.6%) and 47 women (19.4%)

Working age - 181 people (71.8%) - an increase of 11.0%

Younger than able-bodied - 2 (0.8%) - higher than the level of 2010.

Older able-bodied - 67 (27.4%) - an increase of 3.0%.

89 suicides (35.3%) did not work at the time of suicide.

145 people (57.5%) were in alcoholic intoxication.

During the analyzed period, the growth of suicides in relation to 2010 is observed for the population of Beshenkovichi, Braslav, Gluboksky, Dokshitsky, Lioznensky, Miorsky, Orsha, Postavy, Senno, Tolochinsky districts and gg. Novopolotsk and Vitebsk. At the same time, significant growth is noted in Glubokoe, Dokshitsy and Lioznensky districts.

In Vitebsk region in each CRH a psychiatrist is working as a narcologist, assistance to people in a crisis situation can be obtained at the Vitebsk Regional Psychoneurological Dispensary, an anonymous 24-hour "helpline" service is working. 43 22 93.

We consider it necessary to continue joint work on the prevention of suicide, taking into account the emergence of new approaches to solve this problem. "


UZ "Lepel Regional Psychiatric Hospital" informs about the organization in the State Institution "Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Mental Health" (hereinafter referred to as RNPC) from September 2, 2011, the Consultative-Polyclinic Department (hereinafter - KPO).

The function of KPO is to provide consultative and diagnostic medical assistance to citizens of the Republic of Belarus and foreign citizens with mental and behavioral disorders and psychological problems on a gratuitous and reimbursable basis.

KPO provides outpatient, consultative reception of the following categories of citizens:

- on a non-repayable basis - the system of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus sent by the state health organizations;
- on a reimbursable basis - applicants themselves:
- for receiving out-patient counseling psychiatric, psychotherapeutic, narcological assistance;
- for receiving outpatient counseling psychological care;
- for conducting diagnostic, laboratory studies.

Foreign citizens receive out-patient consultative and diagnostic medical assistance in the KPO RNPTS mental health in accordance with the legislation of the Republic of Belarus.

The working hours of KPO are weekdays from 8.00 to 15.00.

Contact telephones: 289 80 34.

The head of the department Grigoryeva Inessa Viktorovna,

doctor psychiatrist-narcologist Sakovich Stanislav Lazarevich.


What causes tobacco smoking?

Most often people do not seriously think about the dangers of smoking. They brush aside, joke, convince themselves that all this is nonsense. The fact is that this is how the human psyche is structured - they overestimate the probability of rare events and underestimate the probability of those that occur quite often. Almost everyone thinks that smoking is not affected by his health. Ask yourself: for sure you happen to buy lottery tickets. And deep down we hope to win the main prize: what if you're lucky?

The probability of such a win is negligible - one in a million. But the attendant small prizes can win many. Here the probability is much higher - about one to fifteen. Smokers have a risk of developing lung and laryngeal cancer: one to fifteen. The mortal danger is close and real. Why play in such a lottery?

What causes tobacco smoking?

Most often people do not seriously think about the dangers of smoking. They brush aside, joke, convince themselves that all this is nonsense. The fact is that this is how the human psyche is structured - they overestimate the probability of rare events and underestimate the probability of those that occur quite often. Almost everyone thinks that smoking is not affected by his health. Ask yourself: for sure you happen to buy lottery tickets. And deep down we hope to win the main prize: what if you're lucky?

The probability of such a win is negligible - one in a million. But the attendant small prizes can win many. Here the probability is much higher - about one to fifteen. Smokers have a risk of developing lung and laryngeal cancer: one to fifteen. The mortal danger is close and real. Why play in such a lottery?

Created for advertising purposes, the myth that cigarettes with a filter, and even more coal, do not harm health, firmly sat in the minds of people. Prove that this is not true, it is quite simple. We will carry out the experiment. We will ask the smoker to put on a cigarette with a filter an ordinary plastic mouthpiece. After a few smoked cigarettes, a brown, viscous, disgusting smell of plaque will appear on its walls. And if you use a mouthpiece to smoke a couple of days in a row, then it will have to be cleaned, because the resin will be clogged by a narrow mouthpiece channel.

Even the only delay is poison. For clarity, you can give the smoker a white handkerchief. Let it exhale the puff through the fabric, then a brown stain spreads across it.

If a person does not smoke himself, this does not mean that he is outside the risk zone and is not exposed to the destructive effects of tobacco smoke. Many of his friends smoke and do harm not only to their own, but also to the health of their friends. And let them not dissuade: "My health, I want and spoil!" Their smoking is dangerous for others.

There is a special term - "passive smoking". When smoking, 25% of toxic substances enter the body of the smoker, and 50%, together with the exhaled smoke, is in the air, which everyone who is near is forced to breathe. The surrounding tobacco smoke (DTD) is a potent mixture of harmful gases, liquids and exhaled particles.

Do not be mistaken and think that CTD is only in the immediate vicinity of the smoker. All this muck straight into the body of a passive smoker, settles in the larynx and in the lungs. Even if he has gone to the safe distance, it seems to him, tobacco smoke poisons him. What exactly?


The whole truth about harmful smoke

In cigarette smoke contains more than 40 different carcinogens, including acetone, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, phenol, benzene, formaldehyde, benzopyrene, resin. L also nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, ammonia and about 4000 (four thousand!) Components, most of which are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic.

The pitch that your students saw with their own eyes in the mouthpiece is extremely dangerous. When smoke enters your mouth, it brings with you millions of these harmful particles per cubic centimeter. Cooling, the smoke in the body of the smoker condenses and forms a resin coagulating in the airways and lungs, causing paralysis of the purification process in the lungs and decreasing the effectiveness of the immune system. Resin is a carcinogen, it is she who is responsible for lung and laryngeal cancer.

Carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) is a colorless gas, it is present in cigarette smoke in high concentration. According to its chemical properties, its ability to bind to hemoglobin is 200 times higher than that of oxygen. Therefore, it easily replaces, displaces oxygen. And this means that an increased level of carbon monoxide in the bloodstream of the smoker reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen, steadily weakening the work of the whole organism. The brain and muscles, including the heart muscle, can not fully and freely work without getting enough oxygen. They suffer, and the smoker keeps them on a starvation ration, instead of the necessary oxygen slipping harmful carbon monoxide. To compensate for the decrease in the amount of oxygen, the heart and lungs are forced to work with increased load. They wear out more quickly, so heart diseases and circulatory system inevitably arise. Carbon monoxide damages the walls of the arteries, which leads to a narrowing of the coronary vessels. The smoker begins heart attacks.

Carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) is a colorless gas, it is present in cigarette smoke in high concentration. According to its chemical properties, its ability to bind to hemoglobin is 200 times higher than that of oxygen. Therefore, it easily replaces, displaces oxygen. And this means that an increased level of carbon monoxide in the bloodstream of the smoker reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen, steadily weakening the work of the whole organism. The brain and muscles, including the heart muscle, can not fully and freely work without getting enough oxygen. They suffer, and the smoker keeps them on a starvation ration, instead of the necessary oxygen slipping harmful carbon monoxide. To compensate for the decrease in the amount of oxygen, the heart and lungs are forced to work with increased load. They wear out more quickly, so heart diseases and circulatory system inevitably arise. Carbon monoxide damages the walls of the arteries, which leads to a narrowing of the coronary vessels. The smoker begins heart attacks.

Ammonia irritates the mucous membrane of the mouth, larynx, trachea, bronchi. That's why smokers often have loose gums and sores in their mouths. From prolonged smoking, the voice gap narrows, and smokers are provided with an unpleasant, hoarse voice.

Hydrogen cyanide is especially dangerous for bronchi. The so-called cilia of the bronchial tree is a part of the purifying mechanism of the lungs. Hydrogen cyanide damages this mechanism, toxic substances and radioactive components - radium-226, radium-228, polonium-210, thorium-228 - begin to accumulate in the respiratory system. It is clearly established that radioactive components are carcinogens. A pack of cigarettes a day is 500 x irradiation per year! So even once "try" is already dangerous.

"Beli nicotine is such a powerful poison, why does not a smoker die right away?" - teens are likely to be bullied. The answer is simple: because the dose is introduced gradually, little by little. Systematic absorption of small doses of nicotine causes habit, addiction, dependence: nicotine is included in the metabolic processes that occur in the human body. And the body is already painfully drawn to the poison, which slowly kills it.


Slow Motion Mine

The smoker daily pours his body with a variety of poisons, and the smoker is younger, the stronger, faster and more destructive the effect of smoking.

In the first place, the respiratory system suffers. The lungs become ashen-black, as it were charred, with impregnations of real coal. During the year of smoking, a kilogram of carcinogenic resin gets into the lungs of a smoker. Not surprisingly, 98% of deaths from laryngeal cancer and 96% of deaths from lung cancer are due to smoking. And 75% of those who die from chronic bronchitis or emphysema are also smokers. Painful death.

Gets out and the cardiovascular system. After each cigarette smoked, the blood pressure rises, the cholesterol content in it increases. Smoking often very often affects the arteries of the legs. Obliterating endeteritis is a terrible disease and sounds scary. The walls of the vessels of the feet are closed. Blood circulation is hampered, and soon it becomes impossible at all. Gangrene begins. Legs are derevyayut and black. They have to be amputated.

Nicotine heavier for many diseases: pneumonia, gastritis, ulcers, hypertension. Smokers are much more likely to be affected by duodenal ulcer, and the risk of death is higher than that of non-smokers. In addition, smokers 13 times more often suffer from angina pectoris, 12 times - myocardial infarction and more than nonsmokers, are prone to infections.

The next, as it seems to people, a shattering argument is akin to an anecdote: "But one of my neighbor smoked and lived to eighty years, the other did not touch the cigarette at all, but died at sixty!"

This argument can not withstand any logical verification. The smoky neighbor had a mighty body for a hundred years, and he, by his bad habit, shortened his term to eighty. And the second neighbor, if he had also smoked, would not have survived to forty.

In any case, smoking in dozens of times increases the risk of premature death from lung cancer, the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, bladder and pancreas.

Nicotine is not only a poison, but also a drug, which is why it causes dependence. The smoker needs more and more doses, he does not want to think that every puff is closer to blocking the vessels of the brain, to the death of nerve cells. A person who smokes can not understand why it became difficult to concentrate, and memory was weakened. He sincerely marvels: "What's wrong with me, I read the same page for the fifth time, but I do not understand anything, my head does not work." And the cigarette is to blame for everything. "People let the enemy in their mouths, and he steals their brains," Shakespeare warned of the dangerous properties of tobacco.


Harmless tobacco does not happen

The question is: "Why then do people smoke if it is so dangerous?"

This question actually includes three separate issues. First: why does a smoker with experience smoke? The answer is obvious: his body is dependent on the poison. The health of the smoker is destroyed, he begins to make desperate attempts to get rid of the bad habit. Fortunately, many still succeed. But titanic efforts are required to restore health.

The second question is formulated as follows: "If it is so harmful, who benefits from people smoking?" The answer is also obvious: the tobacco industry. For tobacco companies, it is beneficial that this harmful habit of people remain and that new victims constantly appear. Maybe you should not ruin your health for the sake of enriching nicotine magnates?

Tobacco companies advertise cigarettes with less nicotine and tar content as "harmless to the body." But there is no harmless tobacco. Cancer specialists say that a non-toxic cigarette can be considered only one that does not smoke and that it does not smoke.

And, finally, the third question. He is the most difficult: "Why do people smoke for the first time?" They smoke for the first time just in their teens. And they smoke a lot and often. What for? After all, there are no habits yet, and the first puffs are unpleasant and difficult to give: the head is spinning, it makes you sick, there is a nasty taste in your mouth. But people smoke again and again, overcoming revulsion and forming a life-threatening dependence.